Mechanistic Study of the N-Formylation of Amines with Carbon Dioxide and Hydrosilanes

N-formylation of amines with CO2 and hydrosilane reducing agents proceeds via fast and complex chemical equilibria, which hinder easy analysis of the reaction pathways. In situ reaction monitoring and kinetic studies reveal that three proposed pathways, via direct- and amine assisted formoxysilane formation (pathways 1 and 2, respectively) and via a silylcarbamate intermediate (pathway 3), are possible depending on the reaction conditions and the substrates. While pathway 1 is favored for non-nucleophilic amines in the absence of a catalyst, a base catalyst results in noninnocent behavior of the amine in the CO2 reduction step toward the formoxysilane intermediate. The reaction pathway is altered by strongly nucleophilic amines, which form stable adducts with CO2. Silylcarbamate intermediates form, which can be directly reduced to the N-formylated products by excess hydrosilane. Nevertheless, without excess hydrosilane, the silylcarbamate is an additional intermediate en route to formoxysilanes along pathway 2. Exchange NMR spectroscopy (EXSY) revealed extensive substituent exchange around the hydrosilane silicon center, which confirms its activation during the reaction and supports the proposed reaction mechanisms. Numerous side reactions were also identified, which help to establish the reaction equilibria in the N-formylation reactions.


Published in:
ACS Catalysis, 8, 11, 10619-10630
Year:
Nov 01 2018
ISSN:
2155-5435
Keywords:
Laboratories:




 Record created 2018-12-13, last modified 2019-06-19

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