Journal article

Micromotion-induced peri-prosthetic fluid flow around a cementless femoral stem

Micromotion-induced interstitial fluid flow at the bone-implant interface has been proposed to play an important role in aseptic loosening of cementless implants. High fluid velocities are thought to promote aseptic loosening through activation of osteoclasts, shear stress induced control of mesenchymal stem cells differentiation, or transport of molecules. In this study, our objectives were to characterize and quantify micromotion-induced fluid flow around a cementless femoral stem using finite element modeling. With a 2D model of the bone-implant interface and full-factorial design, we first evaluated the relative influence of material properties, and bone-implant micromotion and gap on fluid velocity. Transverse sections around a femoral stem were built from computed tomography images, while boundary conditions were obtained from experimental measurements on the same femur. In a second step, a 3D model was built from the same dataset to estimate the shear stress experienced by cells hosted in the peri-implant tissues. The full-factorial design analysis showed that local micromotion had the most influence on peak fluid velocity at the interface. Remarkable variations in fluid velocity were observed in the macrostructures at the surface of the implant in the 2D transverse sections of the stem. The 3D model predicted peak fluid velocities extending up to 2.2 mm/s in the granulation tissue and to 3.9 mm/s in the trabecular bone. Peak shear stresses on the cells hosted in these tissues ranged from 0.1 Pa to 12.5 Pa. These results offer insight into mechanical stimuli encountered at the bone-implant interface.

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