Computational fluid dynamics with stents: quantitative comparison with particle image velocimetry for three commercial off the shelf intracranial stents
Background and purpose Validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in stented intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is still lacking, to reliably predict prone to occlusion hemodynamics, probing, in particular, velocity reduction, and flow pattern changes. This study compares CFD outcome with particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) for three commercial off the shelf (COTS) stents of different material densities. Material and methods The recently developed uniform and high precision multi-time lag PIV method was applied to a sidewall aneurysm before and after implantation of three COTS stents with high, intermediate, and low material densities. The measured laser sheet flow patterns and velocity reductions were compared with CFD results and correlated with stent material density. Results Velocity reduction was in good agreement for unstented high and low porosity stented IA, while flow pattern change was fully matched for unstented and high porosity stented IA. Poor CFD-PIV matching in IA was found for intermediate porosity stents. Conclusions CFD reproduced fully PIV measurements in unstented and high porosity stented IAs. With low porosity stents, CFD reproduced velocity reduction and high velocities close to the neck, while a marked mismatch on sluggish flow was found at the dome. CFD was unable to match PIV with intermediate porosity stents for which hemodynamic transition occurred.