Stress has complex effects on memory function that can vary depending on the type of information that is learned and in relation to inter-individual characteristics. Recent work has also shown that stress can switch performance between memory systems, biasing it toward habit in detriment of spatial or goal-directed strategies. In addition, novel synaptic mechanisms have been implicated in the effects of stress in plasticity and memory. Computational modeling is emerging as a useful approach to integrate and to ascertain neural and cognitive computations underlying different effects of stress in memory. Having provided novel explanations for the inverted-U-shaped relationship between stress and cognitive performance, model-based analysis studies can improve our understanding of diverse effects of stress in cognition and psychopathology.