In the early fifties, Claude Shannon initiated the theory of cryptographic primitives. He defined the notion of diffusion and confusion. However, this theory did not developed very much until nowadays. Recently, the differential cryptanalysis and the linear cryptanalysis gave a significant advance in the analysis of the primitives. Security criteria for confusion, essentially nonlinearity criteria, has been proposed. In this thesis, we show how to define a notion of complexity on the graph structure of the primitives and how to study it. This gives security criteria of the computational network. We propose new criteria for diffusion. Finally, we unify the two types of cryptanalysis, getting rid of their linear aspects by a statistical approach.