The complex structural organization of the white matter of the brain can be depicted in vivo in great detail with advanced diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging schemes. Diffusion MR imaging techniques are increasingly varied, from the simplest and most commonly used technique the mapping of apparent diffusion coefficient values to the more complex, such as diffusion tensor imaging, q-ball imaging, diffusion spectrum imaging, and tractography. The type of structural information obtained differs according to the technique used. To fully understand how diffusion MR imaging works, it is helpful to be familiar with the physical principles of water diffusion in the brain and the conceptual basis of each imaging technique. Knowledge of the technique-specific requirements with regard to hardware and acquisition time, as well as the advantages, limitations, and potential interpretation pitfalls of each technique, is especially useful.