Baltimore Supersite: Highly time- and size-resolved concentrations of urban PM2.5 and its constituents for resolution of sources and immune responses
Protection of public health from the effects of air particulate matter (PM) requires measurements and methods that assess the PM chemical constituents, physical properties, and their sources. Sampling was conducted at three sites in the Baltimore area: a source-oriented (industrial) area in south Baltimore (FMC site), and two receptor area sites (Clifton Park and Ponca Street). FMC measurements were made for the initial 1-month of the project; Clifton measurements lasted for about 2 months, while measurements at Ponca Street lasted for about 9.5 months. Pollutant samples were collected at intervals ranging from 5 min to 1 h using semi-continuous monitors for PM2.5 mass, sulfate, nitrate, elemental and organic carbon, particle number size distributions (10–20,000 nm), CO, NOx, O3, 11 metals, and mass spectra of individual particles, throughout the project. In addition to standard meteorological measurements, a 3D-sonic anemometer and a LIDAR system were operated during selected periods as were a rotating drum impactor with 3- to 6-h resolution and a filter/PUF sampler for 3-h measurements of organic compounds. Standard speciation and FRM mass measurements were also made. This report describes the types of measurements that were made at the various sites of the Baltimore Supersite program as well as presents the summary statistics for some of the PM measurements that have been made. The measurements of aerosol mass, major components, and size distribution data for the three sites are compared. Results show comparable PM concentrations at Ponca Street and Clifton Park. Increased variability was observed at Ponca Street.