Different cell sources for bone tissue engineering are reviewed. In particular, adult cell source strategies have been based on the implantation of unfractionated fresh bone marrow; purified, culture expanded mesenchymal stem cells, differentiated osteoblasts, or cells that have been modified genetically to express rhBMP. Several limiting factors are mentioned for these strategies such as low number of available cells or possible immunological reaction of the host. Foetal bone cells are presented as an alternative solution and review of actual treatments using these cells is presented. Finally, foetal cells used specifically for bone tissue engineering are characterised and potentially interesting therapeutic options are proposed.