Applying Co-Evolutionary Particle Swam Optimization to the Egyptian Board Game Seega
Seega is an ancient Egyptian two-phase board game that, in certain aspects, is more difﬁcult than chess. The two-player game is played on either a 5 × 5, 7 × 7, or 9 × 9 board. In the ﬁrst and more difﬁcult phase of the game, players take turns placing one disk each on the board until the board contains only one empty cell. In the second phase players take turns moving disks of their color; a disk that becomes surrounded by disks of the opposite color is captured and removed from the board. We have developed a Seega program that employs co-evolutionary particle swarm optimization in the generation of feature evaluation scores. Two separate swarms are used to evolve White players and Black players, respectively; each particle represents feature weights for use in the position evaluation. Experimental results are presented and the performance of the full game engine is discussed.