Co-Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization Applied to the 7x7 Seega Game
Seega is an ancient Egyptian two-stage board game that, in certain aspects, is more difﬁcult than chess. The two-player game is most commonly played on a 7 × 7 board, but is also sometimes played on a 5 × 5 or 9 × 9 board. In the ﬁrst and more difﬁcult stage of the game, players take turns placing one disk each on the board until the board contains only one empty cell. In the second stage players take turns moving disks of their color; a disk that becomes surrounded by disks of the opposite color is captured and removed from the board. Building on previous work, on the 5 × 5 version of Seega, we focus, in this paper, on the 7 × 7 board. Our approach employs co-evolutionary particle swarm optimization for the generation of feature evaluation scores. Two separate swarms are used to evolve White players and Black players, respectively; each particle represents feature weights for use in the position evaluation. Experimental results are presented and the performance of the full game engine are discussed.