First fully integrated 2-D array of single-photon detectors in standard CMOS technology
A two-dimensional (2-D) array (4 by 8) of single-photon avalanche diodes integrated in an industrial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process is presented. Each pixel combines a photodiode biased above its breakdown voltage in the so-called Geiger mode, a quenching resistor, and a simple comparator. The pitch between the pixels is 75 mum and the diameter of each pixel is 6.4 mum. The full integration allows reducing the number of charge carriers in a Geiger pulse. The electroluminescence responsible for optical crosstalks between pixels is then reduced leading to a negligible optical crosstalk probability. Thanks to the cleanness of the fabrication process, no afterpulsing effects are noticed. At room temperature, most of the pixels exhibit a dark-count rate of about. 50 Hz. The detection probability is almost identical for all 32 pixels of the array with relative variation in the range of a-few. percents. This letter demonstrates the feasibility of an array: of single-photon detectors sensitive in the visible part of the spectrum. Besides low production costs and compactness,, an undeniable benefit lies in the potential to easily modify the design to fit a specific application. Furthermore, the CMOS integration opens the way p to on-chip data processing.
- URL: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?isNumber=27156&prod=JNL&arnumber=1206776&arSt=+963&ared=+965&arAuthor=Rochas%2C+A.%3B+Gosch%2C+M.%3B+Serov%2C+A.%3B+Besse%2C+P.A.%3B+Popovic%2C+R.S.%3B+Lasser%2C+T.%3B+Rigler%2C+R.&arNumber=1206776&a_id0=1206767&a_id1=1206768&a_id2=1206769&a_id3=1206770&a_id4=1206771&a_id5=1206772&a_id6=1206773&a_id7=1206774&a_id8=1206775&a_id9=1206776&a_id10=1206777&a_id11=1206778&a_id12=1206779&a_id13=1206780&a_id14=1206781&count=15
Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Microelect & Microsyst, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Imaging & Appl Opt, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Gnothis SA, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. Karolinska Inst, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden. Rochas, A, Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Microelect & Microsyst, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 693NU
Times Cited: 8
Cited Reference Count: 7
Record created on 2006-10-03, modified on 2016-08-08