Based on spectral interferometry and wavelength multiplexing, we demonstrate that a combination of these methods could lead to a 3D imaging system. This system has the advantage of a one-dimensional geometry transmission channel and a limited scanning need. This kind of imaging system could, of course, be of a great interest in small size endoscope with 3D imaging capability and a small channel cross-section (less than 1 mm). Theoretical analysis as well as experimental proof of principle is presented in the following paper. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.