The development of phenyl-dithioethyloxycarbonyl (Phdec) and 2-pyridyldithioethyloxycarbonyl (Pydec) protecting groups, which are thiollabile urethanes, is described. These new disulfide-based protecting groups were introduced onto the epsilon-amino group of L-lysine; the resulting amino acid derivatives were easily converted into Nalpha-Fmoc building blocks suitable for both solid- and solution-phase peptide synthesis. Model dipeptide-(Ardec)s were prepared by using classical peptide couplings followed by standard deprotection protocols. They were used to optimize the conditions for complete thiolytic removal of the Ardec groups both in aqueous and organic media. Phdec and Pydec were found to be cleaved within 15 to 30 min under mild reducing conditions: i) by treatment with dithiothreitol or beta-mercaptoethanol in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.5-9.0) for deprotection in water and ii) by treatment with beta-mercapto-ethanol and 1,8-diazobicyclo-[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) in N-methyl-pyrrolidinone for deprotection in an or ganic medium. Successful solid-phase synthesis of hexapeptides Ac-Lys-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-Lys(Ardec)-NH 2 has clearly demonstrated the full orthogonality of these new amino protecting groups with Fmoc and Boc protections. The utility of the Ardec orthogonal deprotection strategy for site-specific chemical modification of peptides bearing several amino groups was illustrated firstly by the preparation of a fluorogenic substrate for caspase-3 protease containing the cyanine dyes Cy 3.0 and Cy 5.0 as FRET donor/acceptor pair, and by solid-phase synthesis of an hexapeptide bearing a single biotin reporter group. ©Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.