Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) are increasingly used in the orthopedic field. This kind of cement has potential applications in bone defect replacements, osteosynthetic screw reinforcements or drug delivery. In vivo studies have demonstrated a good osteointegration of CPC. However, it was also observed that the resorption of CPC could create particles. It is known from orthopedic implant studies that particles can be responsible for the peri-implant osteolysis. Biocompatibility assessment of CPC should then be performed with particles. In this study, we quantified the functions of osteoblasts in the presence of beta-TCP, brushite and cement particles. Two particle sizes were prepared. The first one corresponded to the critical diameter range 1-10 microm and the second one had a diameter larger than 10 microm. We found that CPC particles could adversely affect the osteoblast functions. A decrease in viability, proliferation and production of extracellular matrix was measured. A dose effect was also observed. A ratio of 50 CPC particles per osteoblast could be considered as the maximum number of particles supported by an osteoblast. The smaller particles had stronger negative effects on osteoblast functions than the larger ones. Future CPC development should minimize the generation of particles smaller than 10 microm.