This dissertation is concerned with the study of a new family of representations of finite groups, the endo-p-permutation modules. Given a prime number p, a finite group G of order divisible by p and an algebraically closed field k of characteristic p, we say that a kG-module M is an endo-p-permutation module if its endomorphism algebra Endk(M) is a p-permutation kG-module, that is a direct summand of a permutation kG-module. This generalizes the notion, first introduced by E. Dade in 1978, of endo-permutation modules for p-groups . For P a p-group, E. Dade defined an abelian group structure on the set of isomorphism classes of indecomposable endo-permutation kP-modules with vertex P and he proved that the complete description of the structure of this group is equivalent to the classification of endo-permutation kP-modules. This group of isomorphism classes is now called the Dade group of the p-group P. The problem of describing the Dade group for an arbitrary p-group was recently solved by S. Bouc. This opens the question of studying endo-p-permutation modules, which are the natural generalization to arbitrary finite groups of endo-permutation modules. In the following text, we present the basic properties of endo-p-permutation modules and give a characterization of indecomposable endo-p-permutation modules with vertex P via properties of their sources modules. In particular, when the normalizer of P controls p-fusion, we are able to give a complete classification of sources of indecomposable endo-p-permutation modules with vertex P, using Bouc's description of the Dade group. When p is odd, we also give an alternative proof of a theorem of Dade concerned with extensions of endo-permutation modules, using our previous results. We present a consequence of this theorem of Dade on the structure of the multiplicity module associated to an indecomposable endo-p-permutation module. Finally we study some concrete examples of endo-p-permutation modules such as relative syzygies and relative Heller translates. We prove also that the Green correspondent of an indecomposable kNG(P)- endo-p-permutation module with vertex P is not in general an endo-p-permutation kG-module. The study of such representations is motivated by the important role they play in certain areas of representations theory. For instance, endo-permutation modules, and more generally endo-p-permutation modules (as is proved here), appear in the study of simple modules for p-solvable groups.