Bipolar resistivity profiling of 3D tissue culture
We describe a new low-cost technique for continuous monitoring of the thickness of biofilms and tissue cultures, and we demonstrate the advantage of using electrodes of different dimensions to probe different depths of a sample. We have used electric impedance spectroscopy to monitor keratinocyte stem cells (YF29) growing on an array of Ti/Pt coplanar microelectrodes. The thickness of the sample was reconstructed by fitting the measurements to theoretical curves. We have developed an algorithm for the rapid calculation of the resistance through a multilayered sample. This algorithm is based on conformal mapping and the serial partial capacitance technique. The validity of the technique was tested by measuring the sedimentation rate of an alumina powder. Sample thicknesses between 10 and 80 μm could be measured with a resolution of a few microns using the device.