Methane fluxes were measured at five sites representing oligotrophic peatlands along a European transect. Five study plots were subjected to elevated CO2 concentration (560 ppm), and five plots to NH4NO3 (3 or 5 g N yr(-1)). The CH4 emissions from the control plots correlated in most cases with the soil temperatures. The depth of the water table, the pH, and the DOC, N and SO4 concentrations were only weakly correlated with the CH4 emissions. The elevated CO2 treatment gave nonsignificantly higher CH4 emissions at three sites and lower at two sites. The N treatment resulted in higher methane emissions at three sites (nonsignificant). At one site, the CH4 fluxes of the N-treatment plots were significantly lower than those of the control plots. These results were not in agreement with our hypotheses, nor with the results obtained in some earlier studies. However, the results are consistent with the results of the vegetation analyses, which showed no significant treatment effects on species relationships or biomass production.