The conjugation of peptides/proteins and synthetic polymers is a useful strategy to overcome some of the limitations related to the use of the individual components. This review will highlight two aspects: enhanced structural control at the nanometer level and improved performance, in particular with respect to biomedical applications. In the former case, peptide sequences are mainly used to mediate self-assembly of synthetic polymers. In the latter case, conjugation of an appropriate synthetic polymer to a pharmaceutically active peptide/protein can, for example, prevent premature enzymatic degradation and enhance blood circulation times, which is therapeutically advantageous.