Immediate implant placement using injectable calcium phosphate hydraulic cement in dogs
Techniques allowing implant placement in extraction sockets require either high diameter implants in surgically enlarged sockets or grafting and/or regenerative procedures around implants after their primary surgical stabilization. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of calcium phosphate hydraulic cement (CPHC) to immobilize commercially available titanium implants in extraction sockets. CPHC was used in seven fresh dog extraction sockets in conjunction with ITI TPS implants. Three extraction sockets without CPHC were used as controls. Initial implant stability was measured after 10 min hardening with periostest. The dogs were sacrificed after 9 months. Non-decalcified specimens were prepared for histologic and histomorphometric examination. The surface percentage of implant-to-mineralized bone contact and bone density was calculated for each specimen. The periotest values were significantly different for implants stabilized with CPHC than for the controls, and similar to values reported for osteointegrated implants. New alveolar bone was formed in intimate contact with titanium. In two cases, non-resorbed CPHC residues were observed closely bound to the implant. This study clearly demonstrates that CPHC cement is suitable for immediate implant immobilization in extraction sockets.