One dimensional and multiscale models for blood flow circulation

The aim of this work is to provide mathematically sound and computationally effective tools for the numerical simulation of the interaction between fluid and structures as occurring, for instance, in the simulation of the human cardiovascular system. This problem is global, in the sense that local changes can modify the solution far away. From the point of view of computing and modelling this calls for the use of multiscale methods, where simplified models are used to treat the global problem leaving to more accurate models the local description. Moreover it is characterised by the appearance of pressure waves inside the vessels. In large arteries the vessel wall dynamics can be described by a thin elastic membrane model (Navier equation) while the fluid motion can be represented by the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible Newtonian fluids. Unfortunately, given the high levels of details furnished by this model, its computational complexity is dramatically high. Therefore reduced models have been developed. In particular, one-dimensional models, originally introduced by Euler, seem to be appropriate for the study in the time-space domain of pressure wave propagation induced by the interaction between the fluid and the vessel wall in the arterial tree. These reduced models are obtained after integrating the Navier-Stokes equations over a vessel section, supposed to be circular, and assuming an algebraic wall law to describe the relationship between pressure and wall deformation. They can be used in place of the more complex three dimensional fluid-structure models or in cooperation with them (multiscale approach). The first part of this work deals with one dimensional models. A reduced 1D model taken from literature is presented and analysed. Some extensions of the basic model, in particular with respect to vessel wall law (generalised string model) and more complex geometries (bifurcated and curved arteries), are also considered. Numerical schemes are proposed and some numerical results are presented. In the second part of this thesis we focus on a multiscale model. We consider a 55 arterial tree, described by the 1D model, coupled with lumped parameter models for heart and capillaries. In particular, specific attention has been devoted to the coupling between the left ventricle and the arterial system, whose physiopathological relevance is well known. This mathematical model gives good results in numerical tests and is able to describe the relevant features of the pressure wave propagation and reflections within the arterial system.

    Thèse École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, n° 3006 (2004)
    Section de mathématiques
    Faculté des sciences de base
    Chaire de modélisation et calcul scientifique
    Jury: Bernard Dacorogna, Joaquim Peiro, Nikolaos Stergiopulos, Alessandro Veneziani

    Public defense: 2004-5-26


    Record created on 2005-03-16, modified on 2016-08-08

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