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The main topic of this thesis is elastic image registration for biomedical applications. We start with an overview and classification of existing registration techniques. We revisit the landmark interpolation which appears in the landmark-based registration techniques and add some generalizations. We develop a general elastic image registration algorithm. It uses a grid of uniform B-splines to describe the deformation. It also uses B-splines for image interpolation. Multiresolution in both image and deformation model spaces yields robustness and speed. First we describe a version of this algorithm targeted at finding unidirectional deformation in EPI magnetic resonance images. Then we present the enhanced and generalized version of this algorithm which is significantly faster and capable of treating multidimensional deformations. We apply this algorithm to the registration of SPECT data and to the motion estimation in ultrasound image sequences. A semi-automatic version of the registration algorithm is capable of accepting expert hints in the form of soft landmark constraints. Much fewer landmarks are needed and the results are far superior compared to pure landmark registration. In the second part of this thesis, we deal with the problem of generalized sampling and variational reconstruction. We explain how to reconstruct an object starting from several measurements using arbitrary linear operators. This comprises the case of traditional as well as generalized sampling. Among all possible reconstructions, we choose the one minimizing an a priori given quadratic variational criterion. We give an overview of the method and present several examples of applications. We also provide the mathematical details of the theory and discuss the choice of the variational criterion to be used.