Sampling theory has prospered extensively in the last century. The elegant mathematics and the vast number of applications are the reasons for its popularity. The applications involved in this thesis are in signal processing and communications and call out to mathematical notions in Fourier theory, spectral analysis, basic linear algebra, spline and wavelet theory. This thesis is divided in two parts. Chapters 2 and 3 consider uniform sampling of non-bandlimited signals and Chapters 4, 5, and 6 treat different irregular sampling problems. In the first part we address the problem of sampling signals that are not bandlimited but are characterized as having a finite number of degrees of freedom per unit of time. These signals will be called signals with a finite rate of innovation. We show that these signals can be uniquely represented given a sufficient number of samples obtained using an appropriate sampling kernel. The number of samples must be greater or equal to the degrees of freedom of the signal; in other words, the sampling rate must be greater or equal to the rate of innovation of the signal. In particular, we derive sampling schemes for periodic and finite length streams of Diracs and piecewise polynomial signals using the sinc, the differentiated sinc and the Gaussian kernels. Sampling and reconstruction of piecewise bandlimited signals and filtered piecewise polynomials is also considered. We also derive local reconstruction schemes for infinite length piecewise polynomials with a finite "local" rate of innovation using compact support kernels such as splines. Numerical experiments on all of the reconstruction schemes are shown. The first topic of the second part of this thesis is the irregular sampling problem of bandlimited signals with unknown sampling instances. The locations of the irregular set of samples are found by treating the problem as a combinatorial optimization problem. Search methods for the locations are described and numerical simulations on a random set and a jittery set of locations are made. The second topic is the periodic nonuniform sampling problem of bandlimited signals. The irregular set of samples involved has a structure which is irregular yet periodic. We develop a fast scheme that reduces the complexity of the problem by exploiting the special pattern of the locations. The motivation for developing a fast scheme originates from the fact that the periodic nonuniform set was also considered in the sampling with unknown locations problem and that a fast search method for the locations was sought. Finally, the last topic is the irregular sampling of signals that are linearly and nonlinearly approximated using Fourier and wavelet bases. We present variants of the Papoulis Gerchberg algorithm which take into account the information given in the approximation of the signal. Numerical experiments are presented in the context of erasure correction.