The management of a network of existing road bridges involves interventions in order to maintain safety and the priority of these interventions is often determined by safety criteria. During the evaluation of safety, the dynamic effect of traffic actions is considered using equivalent static loads determined by multiplying the effect calculated using traffic load models by a dynamic amplification factor. During the evaluation of a deck slab, the application of inappropriate dynamic amplification factors could have significant financial implications, all the more since the local dynamic effects of overloaded trucks are determinant for this type of structural element. Dynamic amplification factors defined in codes have usually been derived from the measurement of global traffic action effects in the main structural elements of bridges. Unfortunately, local dynamic effects in deck slabs have not been studied in detail until now. A better understanding of the dynamic behaviour of deck slabs will lead to the definition of more accurate dynamic amplification factors and avoid the use of values that are too conservative. The behaviour of deck slabs of six typical Swiss highway bridges has been simulated in order to study their dynamic response during the passage of trucks. The structural arrangement of the deck slab was different for each of the six bridges. A parametric study was based on the simulation of various scenarios involving the passage of trucks for various combinations of speed, path and road surface roughness. Deck slab response was obtained by numerical simulation based on models of the bridge, truck and road surface. This system was resolved using a prediction - correction algorithm that considers the dynamic interaction between a bridge and trucks. Dynamic amplification factors were subsequently calculated from strains and deflections obtained from independent static and dynamic simulations. The simulation of numerous scenarios enabled the evaluation of the influence of different parameters on the dynamic response of a deck slab: The road surface roughness was found to be one of the most important parameters, with an increase in roughness leading to an increase in dynamic amplification factors. An overloaded truck produces a lower dynamic amplification factor in a deck slab than an empty truck. The truck speed influences the dynamic interaction, but a clear relationship between speed and dynamic amplification factor could not be identified. The maximum dynamic amplification factor does not vary significantly from one point to another over a deck slab in a girder bridge. The structural arrangement of a deck slab in a girder bridge has little influence on dynamic amplification factors. Overall, the different deck slabs on the girder bridges studied were all equally sensitive to the dynamic effects of road traffic. In many cases considered for the framed slab bridge, the maximum dynamic amplification factor was found to occur over the supports. For such bridges, the sensitivity of the deck slab to the dynamic effects of road traffic is not uniform. Finally, two approaches to evaluating deck slabs of existing road bridges are proposed. The first approach is only applicable in certain situations and involves a simplified evaluation using an updated traffic load model and a dynamic amplification factor. In situations where a simplified evaluation is not applicable, the second approach is to evaluate a deck slab using numerical or experimental analyses.