Infoscience

Journal article

# Node Cooperation in Hybrid Ad hoc Networks

A hybrid ad hoc network is a structure-based network that is extended using multi-hop communications. Indeed, in this kind of network, the existence of a communication link between the mobile station and the base station is not required: A mobile station that has no direct connection with a base station can use other mobile stations as relays. Compared with conventional (single-hop) structure-based networks, this new generation can lead to a better use of the available spectrum and to a reduction of infrastructure costs. However, these benefits would vanish if the mobile nodes did not properly cooperate and forward packets for other nodes. In this paper, we propose a charging and rewarding scheme to encourage the most fundamental operation, namely packet forwarding. We use MAC layering" to reduce the space overhead in the packets and a stream cipher encryption mechanism to provide implicit authentication" of the nodes involved in the communication. We analyze the robustness of our protocols against rational and malicious attacks. We show that - using our solution - collaboration is rational for selfish nodes. We also show that our protocols thwart rational attacks and detect malicious attacks.