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Abstract

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor type in adults. GBM is heterogeneous, with a compact core lesion surrounded by an invasive tumor front. This front is highly relevant for tumor recurrence but is generally non-detectable using standard imaging techniques. Recent studies demonstrated distinct metabolic profiles of the invasive phenotype in GBM. Magnetic resonance (MR) of hyperpolarized C-13-labeled probes is a rapidly advancing field that provides real-time metabolic information. Here, we applied hyperpolarized C-13-glucose MR to mouse GBM models. Compared to controls, the amount of lactate produced from hyperpolarized glucose was higher in the compact GBM model, consistent with the accepted "Warburg effect". However, the opposite response was observed in models reflecting the invasive zone, with less lactate produced than in controls, implying a reduction in aerobic glycolysis. These striking differences could be used to map the metabolic heterogeneity in GBM and to visualize the infiltrative front of GBM.

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