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Abstract

This work is motivated by the identification of the land-atmosphere interactions as one of the key sources of uncertainty in climate change simulations. It documents new developments in related processes, namely, boundary layer/convection/clouds parameterizations and land surface parameterization in the Earth System Model of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL). Simulations forced by prescribed oceanic conditions are produced with different combinations of atmospheric and land surface parameterizations. They are used to explore the sensitivity to the atmospheric physics and/or soil physics of major biases in the near surface variables over continents, the energy and moisture coupling established at the soil/atmosphere interface in not too wet (energy limited) and not too dry (moisture limited) soil moisture regions also known as transition or "hot-spot" regions, the river runoff at the outlet of major rivers. The package implemented in the IPSL-Climate Model for the Phase 6 of the Coupled Models Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) allows us to reduce several biases in the surface albedo, the snow cover, and the continental surface air temperature in summer as well as in the temperature profile in the surface layer of the polar regions. The interactions between soil moisture and atmosphere in hotspot regions are in better agreement with the observations. Rainfall is also significantly improved in volume and seasonality in several major river basins leading to an overall improvement in river discharge. However, the lack of consideration of floodplains and human influences in the model, for example, dams and irrigation, impacts the realism of simulated discharge.

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