Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions leading to climate change require to use of renewable carbon sources such as CO2 and biomass which differ from fossil resources by having a higher number of oxygen atoms. Therefore, catalytic C-O bond cleavage will play a pivotal role in their conversion into carbon neutral fuels, materials and chemicals. This thesis will focus on the most challenging substrate for selective C-O bond hydrogenolysis, diaryl ether present in lignin (i.e. one of the components of biomass), summarise the state of research and improve the comprehension in the characteristics a catalyst requires to selectively cleave these bonds without altering other functionalities. We showed that the modification in the electronic state and the resulting polarity between two different metals present in a bimetallic nanoparticle favour the selectivity towards hydrogenolysis of a polar C-O bonds over aromatic ring hydrogenation. In addition, we demon-strate that single metal sites cannot hydrogenate an aromatic ring and hence are selective. Final-ly, we applied our knowledge in C-O bond cleavage in CO2 conversion using propylene carbonate as a relay molecule to produce propylene glycol and methane.