Background Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most widespread neurological network disorders. Computational anatomy MRI studies demonstrate a robust pattern of cortical volume loss. Most statistical analyses provide information about localization of significant focal differences in a segregationist way. Multivariate Bayesian modeling provides a framework allowing inferences about inter-regional dependencies. We adopt this approach to answer following questions: Which structures within a pattern of dynamic epilepsy-associated brain anatomy reorganization best predict TLE pathology. Do these structures differ between TLE subtypes? Methods We acquire clinical and MRI data from TLE patients with and without hippocampus sclerosis (n = 128) additional to healthy volunteers (n = 120). MRI data were analyzed in the computational anatomy framework of SPM12 using classical mass-univariate analysis followed by multivariate Bayesian modeling. Results After obtaining TLE-associated brain anatomy pattern, we estimate predictive power for disease and TLE subtypes using Bayesian model selection and comparison. We show that ipsilateral para-/hippocampal regions contribute most to disease-related differences between TLE and healthy controls independent of TLE laterality and subtype. Prefrontal cortical changes are more discriminative for left-sided TLE, whereas thalamus and temporal pole for right-sided TLE. The presence of hippocampus sclerosis was linked to stronger involvement of thalamus and temporal lobe regions; frontoparietal involvement was predominant in absence of sclerosis. Conclusions Our topology inferences on brain anatomy demonstrate a differential contribution of structures within limbic and extralimbic circuits linked to main effects of TLE and hippocampal sclerosis. We interpret our results as evidence for TLE-related spatial modulation of anatomical networks.