Rapid and efficient transmission of electric signals among neurons of vertebrates is ensured by myelin-insulating sheaths surrounding axons. Human cognition, sensation, and motor functions rely on the integrity of these layers, and demyelinating diseases often entail serious cognitive and physical impairments. Magnetic resonance imaging radically transformed the way these disorders are monitored, offering an irreplaceable tool to noninvasively examine the brain structure. Several advanced techniques based on MRI have been developed to provide myelin-specific contrasts and a quantitative estimation of myelin density in vivo. Here, the vast offer of acquisition strategies developed to date for this task is reviewed. Advantages and pitfalls of the different approaches are compared and discussed.