We employ the Dirac-Frenkel variational principle and the multiple Davydov ansatz to study time-dependent fluorescence spectra of a driven qubit in the weak to strong qubit-reservoir coupling regimes, where both the Rabi frequency and the spontaneous decay rate are comparable to the transition frequency of the qubit. Our method agrees well with the time-local master-equation approach in the weak coupling regime, and offers a flexible way to compute the spectra from the bosonic dynamics instead of two-time correlation functions. While the perturbative master equation breaks down in the strong coupling regime, our method actually becomes more accurate due to the use of bosonic coherent states under certain conditions. We show that the counter-rotating coupling between the qubit and the reservoir has considerable contributions to the photon number dynamics and the spectra under strong driving conditions even when the coupling is moderately weak. The time-dependent spectra are found to be generally asymmetric, a feature that is derived from photon number dynamics. In addition, it is shown that the spectral profiles can be dramatically different from the Mollow triplet due to strong dissipation and/or multiphoton processes associated with the strong driving. Our formalism provides a unique perspective to interpret time-dependent spectra.