Abstract

Vacuum-sealed fully integrated diode and triode field emission arrays based on Ti Spindt-type field emitters have been developed in a scalable, CMOS-compatible process directly on Si. Diode characterization in air demonstrates effective vacuum sealing and field emission conduction, with current drivability that scales with array size. Triode characterization in vacuum demonstrates gate-modulated field emission of the output current and highlights new effects observed in a fully integrated geometry with closely spaced electrodes. Demonstrating up to 200-V blocking voltage and similar magnitude punchthrough voltages, the arrays can be utilized as high-voltage devices in CMOS applications or with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies using post-CMOS MEMS integration techniques. Low-temperature measurements reveal areas of improvement for electrode isolation; combined with the use of improved cathode materials, these devices have the potential to be used in high-power applications.

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