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Abstract

Super-resolution microscopies have become an established tool in biological research. However, imaging throughput remains a main bottleneck in acquiring large datasets required for quantitative biology. Here we describe multifocal flat illumination for field-independent imaging (mfFIFI). By integrating mfFIFI into an instant structured illumination microscope (iSIM), we extend the field of view (FOV) to >100 x 100 mu m(2) while maintaining high-speed, multicolor, volumetric imaging at double the diffraction-limited resolution. We further extend the effective FOV by stitching adjacent images for fast live-cell super-resolution imaging of dozens of cells. Finally, we combine our flat-fielded iSIM with ultrastructure expansion microscopy to collect three-dimensional (3D) images of hundreds of centrioles in human cells, or thousands of purified Chlamydomonas reinhardtiic entrioles, per hour at an effective resolution of similar to 35 nm. Classification and particle averaging of these large datasets enables 3D mapping of posttranslational modifications of centriolar microtubules, revealing differences in their coverage and positioning.

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