Abstract

We present a 1 Mpixel single-photon avalanche diode camera featuring 3.8 ns time gating and 24 kips frame rate, fabricated in 180 nm CMOS image sensor technology. We designed two pixels with a pitch of 9.4 mu m in 7 T and 5.75 T configurations respectively, achieving a maximum fill factor of 13.4%. The maximum photon detection probability is 27%, median dark count rate is 2.0 cps, variation in gating length is 120 ps, position skew is 410 ps, and rise/fall time is <550 ps, all FWHM at 3.3 V excess bias. The sensor was used to capture 2D/3D scenes over 2 m with resolution (least significant bit) of 5.4 mm and precision better than 7.8 mm (rms). We demonstrate extended dynamic range in dual exposure operation mode and show spatially overlapped multi-object detection in single-photon time-gated time of flight experiments. (C) 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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