Stability modeling of the LHC Nb-Ti Rutherford cables subjected to beam losses

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is being prepared for its full energy exploitation during Run III, i.e. an increase of the beam energy beyond the present 6.5 TeV, targeting the maximum discovery potential attainable. This requires an increase of the operating field of the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets, which in turn will result in more demanding working conditions due to a reduction of the operating margin while the energy deposited by particle loss will increase. Beam-induced magnet quenches, i.e. the transition to normal conducting state, will become an increasing concern, because they could affect the availability of the LHC. It is hence very important to understand and be able to predict the quench levels of the main LHC magnets for the required values of current and generated magnetic fields. This information will be used to set accurate operating limits of beam loss, with sufficient but not excessive margin, so to achieve maximal beam delivery to the experiments. In this study we used a one dimensional, multi-strand thermal-electric model to analyze the maximum beam-losses that can be sustained by the LHC magnets, still remaining superconducting. The heat deposition distribution due to the beam losses is given as an input for the stability analysis. Critical elements of the model are the ability to capture heat and current distribution among strands, and heat transfer to the superfluid helium bath. The computational model has been benchmarked against energy densities reconstructed from beam-induced MB (Main Bending) dipole quenches during LHC operation at 6.5 TeV. The model was then used to evaluate the stability margin of both MB and MQ (Main Quadrupole) magnets at different beam energies, up to the expected ultimate operating energy of the LHC, 7.5 TeV. The comparison between the quench levels underlines how the increase of beam energy implies a substantial reduction of magnets stability and will require much stricter setting on the allowable beam losses to avoid resistive transitions during operation.


Published in:
PHYSICAL REVIEW ACCELERATORS AND BEAMS, 22, 4, 041002
Year:
Apr 25 2019
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Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.
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 Record created 2020-01-09, last modified 2020-10-25

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