Lysozyme is one of the most important anti-bacterial effectors in the innate immune system of animals. Besides its direct antibacterial enzymatic activity, lysozyme displays other biological properties, pointing toward a significant anti-inflammatory effect, many aspects of which are still elusive. Here we investigate the perturbation of gene expression profiles induced by lysozyme in a monocyte cell line in vitro considering a perspective as broad as the whole transcriptome profiling. The results of the RNA-seq experiment show that lysozyme induces transcriptional modulation of the TNF-alpha /IL-1 beta pathway genes in U937 monocytes. The analysis of transcriptomic profiles with IPA((R)) identified a simple but robust molecular network of genes, in which the regulation trends are fully consistent with the anti-inflammatory activity of lysozyme. This study provides the first evidence in support of the anti-inflammatory action of lysozyme on the basis of transcriptomic regulation data resulting from the broad perspective of a whole-transcriptome profiling. Such important effects can be achieved with the supplementation of relatively low concentrations of lysozyme, for a short time of exposure. These new insights allow the potential of lysozyme in pharmacological applications to be better exploited.