Oxidative potential (OP), which is the ability of certain components in atmospheric particles to generate reactive oxidative species (ROS) and deplete antioxidants in vivo, is a prevailing toxicological mechanism underlying the adverse health effects associated with exposure to ambient aerosols. While previous studies have identified the high OP of fresh biomass burning organic aerosols (BBOA), it remains unclear how it evolves throughout atmospheric transport. Using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay as a measure of OP, a combination of field observations and laboratory experiments is used to determine how atmospheric aging transforms the intrinsic OP (OPmassDTT) of BBOA. For ambient BBOA collected during the fire seasons in Greece, OPmassDTT was observed to increase by a factor of 2.1 +/- 0.9 for samples of atmospheric ages up to 68 h. Laboratory experiments indicate that aqueous photochemical aging (aging by UVB and UVA photolysis; as well as 01-1 oxidation), as well as aging by ozone and atmospheric dilution can transform the OPmassDTT of the water-soluble fraction of wood smoke within 2 days of atmospheric transport. The results from this work suggest that the air quality impacts of biomass burning emissions can extend beyond regions near fire sites and should be accounted for.