Identification of isomeric amino acid residues in peptides and proteins is challenging but often highly desired in proteomics. One of the practically important cases that require isomeric assignments is that associated with single-nucleotide polymorphism substitutions of Met residues by Thr in cancer-related proteins. These genetically encoded substitutions can yet be confused with the chemical modifications, arising from protein alkylation by iodoacetamide, which is commonly used in the standard procedure of sample preparation for proteomic analysis. Similar to the genetically encoded mutations, the alkylation also induces a conversion of methionine residues, but to the iso-threonine form. Recognition of the mutations therefore requires isoform-sensitive detection techniques. Herein, we demonstrate an analytical method for reliable identification of isoforms of threonine residues in tryptic peptides. It is based on ultraviolet photodissociation mass spectrometry of cryogenically cooled ions and a machine-learning algorithm. The measured photodissociation mass spectra exhibit isoform-specific patterns, which are independent of the residues adjacent to threonine or iso-threonine in a peptide sequence. A comprehensive metric-based evaluation demonstrates that, being calibrated with a set of model peptides, the method allows for isomeric identification of threonine residues in peptides of arbitrary sequence.