Molecular spectroscopy provides unique information on the internal structure of biological materials by detecting the characteristic vibrational signatures of their constituent chemical bonds at infrared frequencies. Nanophotonic antennas and metasurfaces have driven this concept towards few‐molecule sensitivities by confining incident light into intense hot spots of the electromagnetic fields, providing strongly enhanced light‐matter interaction. In this Minireview, recently developed molecular biosensing approaches based on the combination of dielectric metasurfaces and imaging detection are highlighted in comparison to traditional plasmonic geometries, and the unique potential of artificial intelligence techniques for nanophotonic sensor design and data analysis is emphasized. Because of their spectrometer‐less operation principle, such imaging‐based approaches hold great promise for miniaturized biosensors in practical point‐of‐care or field‐deployable applications.