Volume 2 of the IRGC Resource Guide on Resilience provides an in-depth and pragmatic evaluation of concepts and methods for resilience-based approaches in contrast to risk-based approaches, as proposed and practised in different domains of science and practice. Adequate articulation of risk and resilience is key to ensure security in systems. The guide also considers possible drawbacks of resilience, such as if efforts to improve resilience diverts attention from core functions of risk management, or from the need to discourage inappropriate risk-seeking behaviour. Some of the papers in Volume 2 also discuss the relevance and role of resilience as a strategy to address the challenges posed by systemic risks that develop in complex adaptive systems (CAS). Such systems are interconnected, with the result that risks can cascade within and between systems. Resilience can help navigate dynamic changes in CAS, as those evolve in response to internal and external shocks and stresses.