In this paper, we review the current state and discuss new developments in opto-optical modulation (OOM) of semiconductor elements for frequency comb self-referenced stabilization of ultrafast lasers. This method has been successfully used for carrier-envelope offset (CEO) frequency stabilization of diode-pumped solid-state lasers operating in 1-mu m and 1.5-mu m regimes, providing high feedback bandwidth and resulting in low noise performance. We compare the achieved results for Er- and Yb-based laser materials and in different regimes of repetition rates up to 1 GHz. In addition, we present the first semiconductor OOM for CEO stabilization in an ultrafast fiber laser. Moreover, we discuss requirements and design guidelines for OOM chips. In most demonstrations, semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors have been used for OOM, which in parallel were also responsible for pulse formation. By separating the OOM functionality from the pulse formation, we expect that it will enable low-noise CEO stabilization in other types of ultrafast lasers, such as, for example, high-power Kerr-lens mode-locked thin disk lasers.