Commensal microbes colonize the gut epithelia of virtually all animals and provide several benefits to their hosts. Changes in commensal populations can lead to dysbiosis, which is associated with numerous pathologies and decreased lifespan. Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are important regulators of the commensal microbiota and intestinal homeostasis. Here, we found that a null mutation in Drosophila PGRP-SD was associated with over-growth of Lactobacillus plantarum in the fly gut and a shortened lifespan. L. plantarum-derived lactic acid triggered the activation of the intestinal NADPH oxidase Nox and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In turn, ROS production promoted intestinal damage, increased proliferation of intestinal stem cells, and dysplasia. Nox-mediated ROS production required lactate oxidation by the host intestinal lactate dehydrogenase, revealing a host-commensal metabolic crosstalk that is probably broadly conserved. Our findings outline a mechanism whereby host immune dysfunction leads to commensal dysbiosis that in turn promotes age-related pathologies.