Logic synthesis is an enabling technology to realize integrated computing systems, and it entails solving computationally intractable problems through a plurality of heuristic techniques. A recent push toward further formalization of synthesis problems has shown to be very useful toward both attempting to solve some logic problems exactly--which is computationally possible for instances of limited size today--as well as creating new and more powerful heuristics based on problem decomposition. Moreover, technological advances including nanodevices, optical computing, and quantum and quantum cellular computing require new and specific synthesis flows to assess feasibility and scalability. This review highlights recent progress in logic synthesis and optimization, describing models, data structures, and algorithms, with specific emphasis on both design quality and emerging technologies. Example applications and results of novel techniques to established and emerging technologies are reported.