Frequency-Domain Control Design in Power Systems

The scope of this thesis encompasses two main subjects: fixed-structure data-driven control design on one side, and control design in power systems on the other. The overall goal is to identify challenging and relevant problems in power systems, to express them as rigorous specifications from the viewpoint of control systems, and to solve them by developing and applying advanced methods in robust control. This work aims to combine expertise from both fields to open up a holistic perspective and bridge the gap between control and power systems. First, the derivation of a novel fixed-structure, data-driven frequency-domain control design method for multivariable systems is described. A key feature of the method is that only the frequency response of the plant is required for the design, and no parametric model is required. The designed controllers are fully parametrized in terms of matrix polynomial functions and can take a centralized, decentralized or distributed structure. The controller performance is formulated as H_2 and H_infinity constraints on any loop transfer function. A convex formulation of the optimization problem is derived, and it is shown that the solution converges to a locally optimal solution of the original problem. The versatility of the design method is demonstrated in various simulation examples, as well as in experiments on two electromechanical setups. Next, a frequency-domain modeling approach for power grids is discussed. A model based on dynamic phasors is developed that represents the electromagnetic and electromechanic dynamics of lines, inverters, synchronous machines and constant power loads. It also offers a modular structure that makes it straightforward to combine white-, grey- and blackbox models in a single framework. Then, the control design method and dynamic phasor model are applied in two relevant power systems case studies. First, the design of a decentralized current controller for parallel, grid-connected voltage source inverters in a typical distribution grid is considered. It is shown how performance specifications can be formulated as frequency-domain constraints in order to attenuate the resonances introduced by the output filters and coupling effects, and to provide robustness against model uncertainties and grid topology changes. The controllers for all VSIs are designed in a single step, and stability and performance is guaranteed by design. Furthermore, an approach for plug-and-play control design is presented. The results are validated in numerical simulation as well as in power-hardware-in-the-loop experiments. The second study concerns the design of a distributed controller that combines primary and secondary frequency and voltage control for an islanded, meshed low-voltage grid with any number of voltage source inverters and synchronous generators in a single framework. No assumption on the R/X-ratio of the lines is made, and it is shown how advanced control specifications such as proportional active power sharing, zero frequency steady-state error and decoupling can be formulated as constraints on the norm of weighted sensitivity functions. Furthermore, the communication delays of the distributed controller are considered exactly during the design. The controller is implemented in numerical simulation, and results show significantly improved performance as compared to the classical hierarchical structure.

Karimi, Alireza
Lausanne, EPFL

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 Record created 2018-09-13, last modified 2020-10-28

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