Purpose: Local physical and social environment has a defining influence on individual behaviour and health-related outcomes. However, it remains undetermined if its impact is independent of individual socioeconomic status. In this study, we evaluated the spatial distribution of mammography adherence in the state of Geneva (Switzerland) using individual-level data and assessed its independence from socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: Geo-referenced individual-level data from the population-based cross-sectional Bus Sante study (n = 5,002) were used to calculate local indicators of spatial association (LISA) and investigate the spatial dependence of mammography adherence. Spatial clusters are reported without adjustment; adjusted for neighbourhood income and individual educational attainment; and demographic factors (age and Swiss nationality). The association between adjusted clusters and the proximity to the nearest screening centre was also evaluated. Results: Mammography adherence was not randomly distributed throughout Geneva with clusters geographically coinciding with known SES distributions. After adjustment for SES indicators, clusters were reduced to 56.2% of their original size (n = 1,033). Adjustment for age and nationality further reduced the number of individuals exhibiting spatially dependent behaviour (36.5% of the initial size). The identified SES-independent hot spots and cold-spots of mammography adherence were not explained by proximity to the nearest screening centre. Conclusions: SES and demographic factors play an important role in shaping the spatial distribution of mammography adherence. However, the spatial clusters persisted after confounder adjustment indicating that additional neighbourhood-level determinants could influence mammography adherence and be the object of targeted public health interventions.