Visual speech recognition from traditional to deep learning frameworks

Speech is the most natural means of communication for humans. Therefore, since the beginning of computers it has been a goal to interact with machines via speech. While there have been gradual improvements in this field over the decades, and with recent drastic progress more and more commercial software is available that allow voice commands, there are still many ways in which it can be improved. One way to do this is with visual speech information, more specifically, the visible articulations of the mouth. Based on the information contained in these articulations, visual speech recognition (VSR) transcribes an utterance from a video sequence. It thus helps extend speech recognition from audio-only to other scenarios such as silent or whispered speech (e.g.\ in cybersecurity), mouthings in sign language, as an additional modality in noisy audio scenarios for audio-visual automatic speech recognition, to better understand speech production and disorders, or by itself for human machine interaction and as a transcription method. In this thesis, we present and compare different ways to build systems for VSR: We start with the traditional hidden Markov models that have been used in the field for decades, especially in combination with handcrafted features. These are compared to models taking into account recent developments in the fields of computer vision and speech recognition through deep learning. While their superior performance is confirmed, certain limitations with respect to computing power for these systems are also discussed. This thesis also addresses multi-view processing and fusion, which is an important topic for many current applications. This is due to the fact that a single camera view often cannot provide enough flexibility with speakers moving in front of the camera. Technology companies are willing to integrate more cameras into their products, such as cars and mobile devices, due to lower hardware cost for both cameras and processing units, as well as the availability of higher processing power and high performance algorithms. Multi-camera and multi-view solutions are thus becoming more common, which means that algorithms can benefit from taking these into account. In this work we propose several methods of fusing the views of multiple cameras to improve the overall results. We can show that both, relying on deep learning-based approaches for feature extraction and sequence modelling, as well as taking into account the complementary information contained in several views, improves performance considerably. To further improve the results, it would be necessary to move from data recorded in a lab environment, to multi-view data in realistic scenarios. Furthermore, the findings and models could be transferred to other domains such as audio-visual speech recognition or the study of speech production and disorders.


Advisor(s):
Thiran, Jean-Philippe
Year:
2018
Publisher:
Lausanne, EPFL
Keywords:
Laboratories:
LTS5


Note: The status of this file is: Anyone


 Record created 2018-08-29, last modified 2020-04-20

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