Temporal variations in the primary energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of electricity provided by the Swiss grid

It is a frequent practice nowadays to use mean annual conversion factors (CFs) when performing life-cycle assessment (LCA) of processes and products that use electricity supplied by the grid. In this paper, we conduct an hourly assessment of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factor, along with the conversion factors for the cumulative energy demand (CED) and its non-renewable part (CEDnr), of electricity supplied by the Swiss grid and its direct neighboring countries (France, Germany, and Austria; Italy being neglected). Based on an hourly inventory of energy flows during a one-year period (2015–2016), this attributional approach allows performance of various certification procedures of process or product manufacturing, and comparison of energy and carbon intensities of different national mixes. Hourly calculation allows evaluation of the order of magnitude of errors made when considering an annual mix. Visualization techniques are used to better understand the obtained data and to detect when strategies involving timing optimization of electricity use may be efficient. A case study is chosen to illustrate the relevance of hourly CFs when performing LCA associated to the exploitation of a given building. Moreover, mean annual CFs of interest are discriminated by electricity end-use sectors. This could be of great help for system designers willing to improve the assessment accuracy when hourly CFs are not readily available.


Published in:
Energy, 161, 573-582
Year:
Jul 24 2018
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Corresponding data will be soon available from Data-in-brief open access platform (Ed. Elsevier)
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Note: The file is under embargo until: 2020-07-24


 Record created 2018-08-28, last modified 2018-12-03

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