Abstract

Quantum computers1 could revolutionize computing in a profound way due to the massive speedup they promise. A quantum computer comprises a cryogenic quantum processor and a classical electronic controller. When scaling up the cryogenic quantum processor to at least a few thousands, and possibly millions, of qubits required for any practical quantum algorithm, cryogenic CMOS (cryo-CMOS) electronics is required to allow feasible and compact interconnections between the controller and the quantum processor. Cryo-CMOS leverages the CMOS fabrication infrastructure while exploiting the continuous improvement of performance and miniaturization guaranteed by Moore's law, in order to enable the fabrication of a cost-effective practical quantum computer. However, designing cryo-CMOS integrated circuits requires a new set of CMOS device models, their embedding in design and verification tools, and the possibility to co-simulate the cryo-CMOS/quantum-processor architecture for full-system optimization. In this paper, we address these challenges by focusing on their impact on the design of complex cryo-CMOS systems.

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