Ultra high magnetic field for glial contribution into brain metabolism studied by MR spectroscopy and CEST methods for molecular imaging of glycogen

Magnetic resonance at ultra-high field increases signal and spectral dispersion. In this thesis, I use those characteristics to investigate three different subjects in 13C spectroscopy, hyperpolarized methods and chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) used for molecular imaging. In the brain, metabolism is driven by glia-neuron interactions and is composed of at least two compartments with distinct TCA cycle kinetics. The first study examines cerebral metabolic adaptation after an induced glial TCA-cycle impairment using 1H and 13C spectroscopy. We treated rats with fluoroacetate, which specifically blocks glial aconitase and measured changes in neurochemical profile at euglycemic and hyperglycemic condi-tions by in vivo 1H MR spectroscopy. In addition, we evaluated the brain-compartmentalized metabolic adap-tation by following 13C-incorporation into brain amino acids by modern dynamic 13C MRS methods during infu-sion of [1,6-13C2]glucose. By following [1,6-13C2]glucose incorporation, we successfully observed an augmen-tation of pyruvate carboxylase and glutamine synthetase fluxes and a 20% decrease of glial TCA cycle flux. Neuronal metabolism was also affected. In the second study, we focused on hyperpolarized methods to increase acetate 13C polarization allowing us to follow the kinetics of its metabolic products in the TCA cycle. Indeed, infusion of hyperpolarized [1-13C]acetate, an astrocyte-specific precursor, and the in vivo detection of 2-oxo[5-13C]glutarate (2OG), a TCA intermediate, enables the direct analysis of glial Krebs cycle activity. We examined the effect of hyperpolar-ized acetate concentration on its cerebral metabolism and calculate the production rate of 2OG. A healthy group was compared to rodents treated with fluoroacetate. The conversion rates of acetate to 2OG were calculated and were found to depend on the substrate dose. We successfully estimated 2OG production rates. In partially inhibited TCA cycle conditions, the production rate of 2OG was reduced by a quarter. This level of reduction is agrees with the percentage of inhibition calculated in the first study. Finally, we investigated glycogen imaging in skeletal muscle using the CEST strategy. It has been demonstrat-ed in perfused liver that glycogen can be detected indirectly through the water signal using CEST. Glycogen detection is, due to its resonance close to water, strongly sensitive to spectral dispersion and improved by a higher static magnetic field. In contrast to liver, which contains ~300 mmol/g of glycogen and enjoys good glycogen specificity, myocellular content is also rich in creatine, which produces a spectral signal on the same order of amplitude as its glycogen content of ~80-30 mmol/g. In this study, we allowed glycogen to be de-tectable in vivo and distinguishable from the neighboring creatine at 14.1T. We propose to use creatine as an internal reference for muscular glycoCEST analysis. Scanning muscle after physical exercise, resulted in a 50% reduction of glycoCEST compared to muscle at resting state. This result supportis the specificity of the CEST method and is consistent with literature. This last study demonstrates for the first time that glycoCEST imag-ing is feasible in vivo.


Advisor(s):
Gruetter, Rolf
Year:
2018
Publisher:
Lausanne, EPFL
Keywords:
Other identifiers:
urn: urn:nbn:ch:bel-epfl-thesis8125-7
Laboratories:


Note: The status of this file is: EPFL only


 Record created 2018-01-09, last modified 2019-05-09

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