Journal article

Full-Scale Testing of Deep Wide-Flange Steel Columns under Multiaxis Cyclic Loading: Loading Sequence, Boundary Effects, and Lateral Stability Bracing Force Demands

This paper discusses the findings from 10 full-scale steel column tests subjected to multi-axis cyclic loading. The columns use deep wide-flange cross sections typically seen in steel moment-resisting frames designed in seismic regions. The effects of boundary conditions, loading sequence, local web, and member slenderness ratios on the column hysteretic behavior are investigated. The test data underscore the influence of boundary conditions on the damage progression of steel columns. Local buckling followed by out-of-plane deformations near the plastified column base are the dominant failure modes in fixed base columns with a realistic flexible top end. Twisting may occur only at drifts larger than 3% even when the member slenderness is fairly large. The test data suggest that bidirectional loading amplifies the out-of-plane deformations but does not significantly affect the overall column performance. The loading sequence strongly affects the column’s plastic deformation capacity but only at story drifts larger than 2%. Above this drift amplitude, column axial shortening grows exponentially and becomes a controlling failure mode. Measurements of the lateral stability bracing force demands at the column top exceed the lateral brace design force specified in North American standards.

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