Effect of changes of femoral offset on abductor and joint reaction forces in total hip arthroplasty

Anatomical reconstruction in total hip arthroplasty (THA) allows for physiological muscle function, good functional outcome and implant longevity. Quantitative data on the effect of a loss or gain of femoral offset (FO) are scarce. The aim of this study was to quantitatively describe the effect of FO changes on abductor moment arms, muscle and joint reactions forces. THA was virtually performed on 3D models built from preoperative CT scans of 15 patients undergoing THA. Virtual THA was performed with a perfectly anatomical reconstruction, a loss of 20% of FO (-FO), and a gain of 20% of FO (+FO). These models were combined with a generic musculoskeletal model (OpenSim) to predict moment arms, muscle and joint reaction forces during normal gait cycles. In average, with -FO reconstructions, muscle moment arms decreased, while muscle and hip forces increased significantly (p < 0.001). We observed the opposite with +FO reconstructions. Gluteus medius was more affected than gluteus minimus. -FO had more effect than +FO. A change of 20% of FO induced an average change 8% of abductor moment arms, 16% of their forces, and 6% of the joint reaction force. To our knowledge, this is the first report providing quantitative data on the effect of FO changes on muscle and joint forces during normal gait. A decrease of FO necessitates an increase of abductor muscle force to maintain normal gait, which in turn increases the joint reaction force. This effect underscores the importance of an accurate reconstruction of the femoral offset.

Published in:
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, 137, 11, 1579-1585
New York, Springer Verlag

 Record created 2017-11-08, last modified 2018-03-18

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